Assessing the effectiveness of crowdsourced geographic information for solid waste management in Timor-Leste : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Sciences (Information Technology) at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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Dili, the capital city of Timor-Leste has been faced with serious solid waste problems in recent years. Responding to this issue, the government has adopted various policies including setting up solid waste collection sites in community areas and outsourcing collection to the private sector to collect waste directly from homes in several areas. Despite, these efforts, waste is still found scattered on the roads and disposed of in rivers and open lands. A proper solid waste management strategy is necessary to transform the city into a clean city. In order to develop an effective solid waste management strategy, reliable data and public participation are required. This study, therefore, investigated whether crowdsourcing, in particular, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) can effectively be used to collect data about solid waste disposal and collection practices in Dili and raise awareness of the impact of waste disposal practices among the public. The study result demonstrated that crowdsourcing is a viable method for collecting solid waste data. Challenges such as collecting accurate location-specific data still remain, hence, the crowdsourced dataset may not entirely substitute for the usual traditional dataset. At this stage, however, the collected data can still be utilized as a supplementary data source. In the future, by improving data collection methodologies, such as using smaller rewards or providing necessary facilities, a crowdsourcing-based data collection method could be utilized as an adequate substitute for traditional data source because of its ability to collect data in real- time with lower operational costs. This approach is feasible for a developing country such as Timor-Leste where critical area such as waste management has less priority for funding.
Refuse and refuse disposal, Geographic information systems, Timor-Leste, Dili, Crowdsourcing