Nutritional Implications of Baby-Led Weaning and Baby Food Pouches as Novel Methods of Infant Feeding: Protocol for an Observational Study

dc.contributor.authorTaylor RW
dc.contributor.authorConlon CA
dc.contributor.authorBeck KL
dc.contributor.authorvon Hurst PR
dc.contributor.authorTe Morenga LA
dc.contributor.authorDaniels L
dc.contributor.authorHaszard JJ
dc.contributor.authorMeldrum AM
dc.contributor.authorMcLean NH
dc.contributor.authorCox AM
dc.contributor.authorTukuafu L
dc.contributor.authorCasale M
dc.contributor.authorBrown KJ
dc.contributor.authorJones EA
dc.contributor.authorKatiforis I
dc.contributor.authorRowan M
dc.contributor.authorMcArthur J
dc.contributor.authorFleming EA
dc.contributor.authorWheeler BJ
dc.contributor.authorHoughton LA
dc.contributor.authorDiana A
dc.contributor.authorHeath A-LM
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: The complementary feeding period is a time of unparalleled dietary change for every human, during which the diet changes from one that is 100% milk to one that resembles the usual diet of the wider family in less than a year. Despite this major dietary shift, we know relatively little about food and nutrient intake in infants worldwide and virtually nothing about the impact of baby food "pouches" and "baby-led weaning" (BLW), which are infant feeding approaches that are becoming increasingly popular. Pouches are squeezable containers with a plastic spout that have great appeal for parents, as evidenced by their extraordinary market share worldwide. BLW is an alternative approach to introducing solids that promotes infant self-feeding of whole foods rather than being fed purées, and is popular and widely advocated on social media. The nutritional and health impacts of these novel methods of infant feeding have not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the First Foods New Zealand study is to determine the iron status, growth, food and nutrient intakes, breast milk intake, eating and feeding behaviors, dental health, oral motor skills, and choking risk of New Zealand infants in general and those who are using pouches or BLW compared with those who are not. METHODS: Dietary intake (two 24-hour recalls supplemented with food photographs), iron status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor), weight status (BMI), food pouch use and extent of BLW (questionnaire), breast milk intake (deuterium oxide "dose-to-mother" technique), eating and feeding behaviors (questionnaires and video recording of an evening meal), dental health (photographs of upper and lower teeth for counting of caries and developmental defects of enamel), oral motor skills (questionnaires), and choking risk (questionnaire) will be assessed in 625 infants aged 7.0 to 9.9 months. Propensity score matching will be used to address bias caused by differences in demographics between groups so that the results more closely represent a potential causal effect. RESULTS: This observational study has full ethical approval from the Health and Disability Ethics Committees New Zealand (19/STH/151) and was funded in May 2019 by the Health Research Council (HRC) of New Zealand (grant 19/172). Data collection commenced in July 2020, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: This large study will provide much needed data on the implications for nutritional intake and health with the use of baby food pouches and BLW in infancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620000459921; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29048.
dc.description.publication-statusPublished online
dc.format.extente29048 - ?
dc.identifier.citationJMIR Res Protoc, 2021, 10 (4), pp. e29048 - ?
dc.publisherJMIR Publications
dc.relation.isPartOfJMIR Res Protoc
dc.rights(c) The author/s CC BY 4.0
dc.subjectbaby-led weaning
dc.subjectbreast milk
dc.subjectcomplementary feeding
dc.subjectdental health
dc.subjecteating behavior
dc.subjectfeeding behavior
dc.subjectfood pouch
dc.subject.anzsrc1103 Clinical Sciences
dc.subject.anzsrc1117 Public Health and Health Services
dc.titleNutritional Implications of Baby-Led Weaning and Baby Food Pouches as Novel Methods of Infant Feeding: Protocol for an Observational Study
dc.typeJournal article
pubs.notesNot known
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University/College of Health
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University/College of Health/Research Centre for Hauora and Health
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University/College of Health/School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University/College of Humanities and Social Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/Massey University/College of Humanities and Social Sciences/Institute of Education
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