Assessment of Changes in Physiological Markers in Different Body Fluids at Rest and after Exercise

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MDPI (Basel, Switzerland)
Physiological and biological markers in different body fluids are used to measure the body's physiological or pathological status. In the field of sports and exercise medicine, the use of these markers has recently become more popular for monitoring an athlete's training response and assessing the immediate or long-term effects of exercise. Although the effect of exercise on different physiological markers using various body fluids is well substantiated, no article has undertaken a review across multiple body fluids such as blood, saliva, urine and sweat. This narrative review aims to assess various physiological markers in blood, urine and saliva, at rest and after exercise and examines physiological marker levels obtained across similar studies, with a focus on the population and study methodology used. Literature searches were conducted using PRISMA guidelines for keywords such as exercise, physical activity, serum, sweat, urine, and biomarkers, resulting in an analysis of 15 studies for this review paper. When comparing the effects of exercise on physiological markers across different body fluids (blood, urine, and saliva), the changes detected were generally in the same direction. However, the extent of the change varied, potentially as a result of the type and duration of exercise, the sample population and subject numbers, fitness levels, and/or dietary intake. In addition, none of the studies used solely female participants; instead, including males only or both male and female subjects together. The results of some physiological markers are sex-dependent. Therefore, to better understand how the levels of these biomarkers change in relation to exercise and performance, the sex of the participants should also be taken into consideration.
blood, health, nutrition, performance, saliva, sports, sweat, urine, Humans, Male, Female, Exercise, Sports, Body Fluids, Sweat, Biomarkers
Jesuthasan A, Ali A, Lee JKW, Rutherfurd-Markwick K. (2022). Assessment of Changes in Physiological Markers in Different Body Fluids at Rest and after Exercise.. Nutrients. 14. 21. (pp. 4685-).