Kaitiakitanga : Māori experiences, expressions, and understandings : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatū, Aotearoa New Zealand

dc.confidentialEmbargo : Noen_US
dc.contributor.advisorO'Donoghue, Kieran
dc.contributor.authorBeverland, Marjorie Jane Hera
dc.descriptionThe article in Appendix 6 is re-published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0).en
dc.description.abstractThis doctoral thesis investigates Māori experiences, expressions, and understandings of kaitiakitanga. Kaitiakitanga is understood as a philosophy connected to three realms, the metaphysical, physical, and human realms. Whether the practice of kaitiakitanga has morphed from its customary understanding situated within the metaphysical, physical, and human realms to a human centric practice is a key focus explored in this study. Kaitiakitanga is considered an environmental ethic and concerns Māori responsibilities and obligations regarding land, water, wāhi tapu, and taonga. Kaitiakitanga is often defined to justify the Māori worldview regarding the environment, resource management, and sustainability. There is a solid and growing base of literature concerning Kaitiakitanga as an environment, sustainability, and productivity ethic, which is derived primarily from hapū, iwi, Waitangi Tribunals, and legal contexts. However, further research is needed regarding the human realm and human experiences, expressions, and understandings of kaitiakitanga and its practice. Kawharu (1998) argued in her seminal work on kaitiakitanga, that its implementation is as much about managing people as it is about managing resources and specifically noted that kaitiakitanga is not simply an environmental ethic but a socio-environmental ethic. The human realm is explored throughout this thesis to identify areas to grow and develop kaitiakitanga in ways that enable consistent, accurate, and clear use of this Māori body of knowledge. The study is underpinned by a Kaupapa Māori methodology. Application of Kaupapa Māori requires honouring and privileging Māori people and knowledge and this carried an obligation to apply Māori ways of knowing and being across all areas of this study. Kaupapa Māori principles provided signposts to organise ideas, views, and experiences in a way that carried cultural integrity. The principles also provided the base for organising and theming the information gathered from the kaikōrero. All 24 kaikōrero are Māori and their experiences and knowledge spanned a range of contexts such as mātauranga Māori, education, rongoā, rangatahi, social work, and whānau. Both individual and group hui were held with the kaikōrero. Regarding the human realm, there are several key findings. Whānau and kuia are considered key knowledge holders in the human realm, and they are crucial to maintaining and sustaining kaitiakitanga practices. This study identifies human beings as ‘kaitiaki’, where traditionally kaitiaki were understood only as spiritual beings and guides, and these roles are determined by whānau, hapū, and iwi. Whakapapa and mana whenua is the precursor to being a kaitiaki or carrying kaitiakitanga roles in the human realm. When kaitiakitanga is enacted within the human realm it is not isolated or separate from the metaphysical and physical realm. Te reo, whakaaro, tikanga and mātauranga are critical to the Māori experience, expression and understanding of kaitiakitanga in the human realm. Finally, the practice of kaitiakitanga in the human realm engages all parts of the self which includes the inner being, personality, attributes, values, qualities, emotions, and feelings. This thesis extends on the three realms of kaitiakitanga and adds further layers of discussion related to tikanga and mātauranga. It contributes to the kaitiakitanga literature regarding whānau understandings, taiao, taonga tuku iho and tino rangatiratanga. The use of kaitiakitanga, by who and in what contexts are also presented. New knowledge is highlighted regarding te tuakiritanga, whānau, and kaitiaki understandings and roles. The study reaffirms that the three realms of kaitiakitanga are an inseparable part of its understanding and practice and that, when situated outside of kaupapa that is Māori, kaitiakitanga becomes divorced from its traditional understanding and its underpinning elements, and therefore loses integrity. Traditionally and in contemporary times Māori understand kaitiaki as spiritual beings and guides, this is extended on here by naming people as ‘kaitiaki’. This thesis provides a significant contribution to the human realm of kaitiakitanga or what is described by Forster (2012) as active kaitiaki and by Kawharu (1998) as social spheres. This study affirms kaitiakitanga as an environmental ethic but adds that it is underpinned by Kaupapa Māori whereby whakapapa is a pre-cursor to kaitiakitanga, and kaitiakitanga is led, defined, experienced, and practiced by Māori.en_US
dc.publisherMassey Universityen_US
dc.rightsThe Authoren_US
dc.subjectPhilosophy, Maorien
dc.subjectEnvironmental ethicsen
dc.subjectSocial ethicsen
dc.subjectNew Zealanden
dc.subjectMāori Doctoral Thesisen
dc.subject.anzsrc451126 Ngā mahi tauwhiro me te tika pāpori o te Māori (Māori social work and social justice)en
dc.titleKaitiakitanga : Māori experiences, expressions, and understandings : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatū, Aotearoa New Zealanden_US
massey.contributor.authorBeverland, Marjorie Jane Heraen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSocial Worken_US
thesis.degree.grantorMassey Universityen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_US
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