Autonomous Fingerprinting and Large Experimental Data Set for Visible Light Positioning

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
MDPI (Basel, Switzerland)
CC BY 4.0
This paper presents an autonomous method of collecting data for Visible Light Positioning (VLP) and a comprehensive investigation of VLP using a large set of experimental data. Received Signal Strength (RSS) data are efficiently collected using a novel method that utilizes consumer grade Virtual Reality (VR) tracking for accurate ground truth recording. An investigation into the accuracy of the ground truth system showed median and 90th percentile errors of 4.24 and 7.35 mm, respectively. Co-locating a VR tracker with a photodiode-equipped VLP receiver on a mobile robotic platform allows fingerprinting on a scale and accuracy that has not been possible with traditional manual collection methods. RSS data at 7344 locations within a 6.3 × 6.9 m test space fitted with 11 VLP luminaires is collected and has been made available for researchers. The quality and the volume of the data allow for a robust study of Machine Learning (ML)- and channel model-based positioning utilizing visible light. Among the ML-based techniques, ridge regression is found to be the most accurate, outperforming Weighted k Nearest Neighbor, Multilayer Perceptron, and random forest, among others. Model-based positioning is more accurate than ML techniques when a small data set is available for calibration and training. However, if a large data set is available for training, ML-based positioning outperforms its model-based counterparts in terms of localization accuracy.
fingerprint, Indoor Localization, Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS), Virtual Reality (VR), ground truth, Visible Light Positioning
SENSORS, 2021, 21 (9)