Cooked Rice-Based and Wheat-Based Food Structure Influenced Digestion Kinetics and Glycemic Response in Growing Pigs

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Elsevier Inc on behalf of American Society for Nutrition
(c) 2023 The Author/s
BACKGROUND: How starch-based food structure can affect the rate and extent of digestion in the small intestine and resulting glycemic response is not properly understood. One possible explanation is that food structure influences gastric digestion, which subsequently determines digestion kinetics in the small intestine and glucose absorption. However, this possibility has not been investigated in detail. OBJECTIVES: Using growing pigs as a digestion model for adult humans, this study aimed to investigate how physical structure of starch-rich foods affects small intestinal digestion and glycemic response. METHODS: Male growing pigs (21.7 ± 1.8 kg, Large White × Landrace) were fed one of the 6 cooked diets (250-g starch equivalent) with varying initial structures (rice grain, semolina porridge, wheat or rice couscous, or wheat or rice noodle). The glycemic response, small intestinal content particle size and hydrolyzed starch content, ileal starch digestibility, and portal vein plasma glucose were measured. Glycemic response was measured as plasma glucose concentration collected from an in-dwelling jugular vein catheter for up to 390 min postprandial. Portal vein blood samples and small intestinal content were measured after sedation and euthanasia of the pigs at 30, 60, 120, or 240 min postprandial. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA. RESULTS: The plasma glucose Δmaxoverall and iAUCoverall for couscous and porridge diets (smaller-sized diets) were higher than that of intact grain and noodle diets (larger-sized diets): 29.0 ± 3.2 compared with 21.7 ± 2.6 mg/dL and 5659 ± 727 compared with 2704 ± 521 mg/dL⋅min, for the smaller-sized and larger-sized diets, respectively (P < 0.05). Ileal starch digestibility was not significantly different between the diets (P ≥ 0.05). The iAUCoverall was inversely related to the starch gastric emptying half-time of the diets (r = -0.90, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Starch-based food structure affected the glycemic response and starch digestion kinetics in the small intestine of growing pigs.
digestion kinetics, food structure, gastric emptying rate, glycemic response, growing pigs, small intestinal digestion, starch-based foods, Humans, Adult, Swine, Male, Animals, Blood Glucose, Oryza, Triticum, Digestion, Starch, Edible Grain
Nadia J, Olenskyj AG, Stroebinger N, Hodgkinson SM, Estevez TG, Subramanian P, Singh H, Singh RP, Bornhorst GM. (2023). Cooked Rice-Based and Wheat-Based Food Structure Influenced Digestion Kinetics and Glycemic Response in Growing Pigs.. J Nutr. 153. 5. (pp. 1373-1388).