Facilitating development : an examination of partnerships and intentional development by cruise tourism in Vanuatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master's of International Development, Massey University
Since the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), the private sector has been elevated as an equal partner for development, alongside the public and the non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors. Consequently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and public-private partnerships (PPP), both being examples of intentional development, have become increasingly important for international development.
Globally, cruise tourism is the fastest growing sector of tourism with a compounding increase of 8% year on year. In this Vanuatu based study, the development initiatives of Carnival Australia, a mass tourism cruise multinational, are examined to establish what extent cruise tourism can enhance development outcomes.
A qualitative approach consisting of non-participant observation, semi-structured interviews and a detailed literature review has resulted in the support of previous studies indicating that the private sector can be unreliable when considered a development
actor. Carnival is, however, an enthusiastic and committed facilitator of development and should be viewed as such. A realignment of expectations is vitally important for the private sector’s ability to meet expectations as a facilitating partner towards achieving sustainable development. This is reflective of Sustainable Development Goal #17 on Partnerships.
Keywords: Carnival, Cruise, Tourism, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, Public-Private Partnership, PPP, P3, DFAT, Community Development, Facilitation for Development, Development First, Vanuatu, Pacific, SDG