Facilitating development : an examination of partnerships and intentional development by cruise tourism in Vanuatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master's of International Development, Massey University

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Massey University
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Since the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), the private sector has been elevated as an equal partner for development, alongside the public and the non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors. Consequently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and public-private partnerships (PPP), both being examples of intentional development, have become increasingly important for international development. Globally, cruise tourism is the fastest growing sector of tourism with a compounding increase of 8% year on year. In this Vanuatu based study, the development initiatives of Carnival Australia, a mass tourism cruise multinational, are examined to establish what extent cruise tourism can enhance development outcomes. A qualitative approach consisting of non-participant observation, semi-structured interviews and a detailed literature review has resulted in the support of previous studies indicating that the private sector can be unreliable when considered a development actor. Carnival is, however, an enthusiastic and committed facilitator of development and should be viewed as such. A realignment of expectations is vitally important for the private sector’s ability to meet expectations as a facilitating partner towards achieving sustainable development. This is reflective of Sustainable Development Goal #17 on Partnerships. Keywords: Carnival, Cruise, Tourism, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, Public-Private Partnership, PPP, P3, DFAT, Community Development, Facilitation for Development, Development First, Vanuatu, Pacific, SDG
Tourism -- Economic aspects -- Vanuatu, Sustainable development -- Vanuatu, Cruise lines -- Economic aspects, Carnival Corporation