Evaluation of management programs for sustainable mangrove development [microform] : the case of the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University
This study applies policy evaluation as a technique of resolving inefficiency of management policies and programs in achieving sustainable development of mangroves. It aims to emphasize the interrelationships of socio-economic, ecological, and institutional issues of resource management in planning and decision making. This is achieved through the review of the concept of sustainable development and the characteristics of mangrove ecosystems. The case of mangrove management of the Philippines is used to test the relevance of policy evaluation in natural resource management. The evaluation is based on a multi-disciplinary perspective of sustainable development which considers the interrelationship of socio-economic, ecological and institutional issues relating to the utilization of natural resources, such as mangroves, for human purposes. A conceptual set of goals for sustainable mangrove development is developed and associated evaluation criteria are derived to analyze the sustainability of mangrove policies and programs. The evaluation of mangrove programs of the Philippines illustrated the view that unless a closer review and examination is made on existing and proposed programs in management of the country's mangrove resources, government efforts which focus on the resource alone will only lead to further degradation of the mangrove ecosystem. The Goal Achievement Matrix (GAM) is used as a framework, within which the impacts of such programs are reviewed. The evaluation concludes with the general recommendation that Philippine mangrove policies and programs for managing mangroves needs to be altered to avoid conflict and disintegration and to achieve more efficient and more holistic approach to their management. Specific socio-economic, ecological and institutional recommendations are made to improve the country's mangrove policies and programs. The study reinforces efforts to implement the concept of sustainable development in natural resource management, which currently includes little evaluation of the consequences of efforts in achieving intended goals. The study introduces conceptual goals and criteria which may be used in any tropical country to ensure sustainable development of mangroves. This set of goals and criteria, embracing the interrelationships of socio-economic, ecological and institutional factors, may serve as guide or framework in managing mangroves and other similar ecosystems now and in the future. The study also emphasizes the usefulness of GAM as a framework for evaluating policies about complex issues of natural resource management. The GAM methodology, which has been traditionally used in ranking alternative programs in the context of urban planning, is shown to be useful in evaluating natural resource management policies and programs. With the introduction of sustainable development criteria into GAM methodology, the evaluation technique not only provides relative ranking of mangrove programs, but indicates how well a particular program achieves the goals of sustainable mangrove development. It is hoped that resource managers, researchers, and other concerned individuals are motivated to undertake program evaluation more effectively in order to achieve sustainable development of natural resources.