"Mary, we will count it with you" : inclusion of all students in the large group mathematical discussion : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Mathematics Education at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

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Achievement in mathematics contributes to lifelong opportunities well beyond the mathematics classroom. Nationally, and internationally, high failure rates in mathematics see many marginalised students excluded from equitable higher education, career, and economic opportunities. Current studies in mathematics education emphasise the power of mathematical discourse to recalibrate equity. This study is an exploration of teacher actions that promote inclusion of marginalised students during the mathematical discussion in an inquiry model called Developing Mathematical Inquiry Communities (DMIC). While many studies focus on inclusion of marginalised students in mathematical discourse there have been no studies located specifically in the large group discussion under the DMIC model. A case study, using qualitative research methods, was selected as most appropriate for the study. Two primary teachers, with experience teaching under the DMIC pedagogical model, participated in the current study. Both teachers engaged, respectively, in four mathematics lessons focused on their facilitation of the large group discussion. A range of data were collected and analysed, including interviews, classroom observations, photographs of student work, and teacher planning. Findings revealed that when marginalised students were given opportunities to contribute, they exceeded their teacher’s expectations. Specific teacher actions across seven pedagogical tools effectively promoted inclusion of marginalised students in the mathematical discussion. Teachers were enabled to enact these specific acts of inclusion through a shift in beliefs. Of significance was the belief shift where teachers transitioned from a fixed intelligence belief system to a belief in the fluidity of intelligence. Employing a growth mindset supported this belief shift. This study adds to the literature in how teachers can include marginalised students in mathematical discourse. Evidence is provided which suggests that when educators explicitly address structural inequities in mathematics education, opportunities are provided for not only marginalised students but all students to bring their own strengths to discussion in relevant and meaningful ways.