Freyberg's high-command relationships, 1939-1941 : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

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Massey University
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This thesis analyses General Bernard Freyberg’s highcommand relationships from November 1939 to June 1941. The civil-military relationship was inadequately formed and therefore incapable of functioning effectively. Coalition relations with Middle East Command became disharmonious in September 1940 because the British refused to accept Dominions as independent allies. Unable to unite his force until February 1941, Freyberg’s officers formed an independent subculture that challenged his command. The 1941 campaign in Greece brought these relationship shortcomings to the surface. The turning point in all three relationships took place in Cairo in June 1941 where, in meetings with Freyberg, Prime Minister Peter Fraser implemented remedies to the relationship failures and also initiated changes in the New Zealand Government’s alliance relationship with Whitehall. Personalities and interpersonal relations are shown to be central to effective high-command relationships.
Civil-military relations, Greece, 1941, Cairo, 1941, Bernard Freyberg, World War Two, Second World War, High-command relationships, Military leadership