Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences

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Research Letters welcomes papers from staff and graduate students at Massey University in the areas of: Computer Science, Information Science, Mathematics, Statistics and the Physical and Engineering Sciences. Research letters is a preprint series that accepts articles of completed research work, technical reports, or preliminary results from ongoing research. After editing, articles are published online and can be referenced, or handed out at conferences. Copyright remains with the authors and the articles can be used as preprints to academic journal publications or handed out at conferences. Editors Dr Elena Calude Dr Napoleon Reyes The guidelines for writing a manuscript can be accessed here.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 130
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    Leaf area index and topographical effects on turburlent diffusion in a deciduous forest
    (Massey University, 2012) Kimura, S.; McKibbin, R.; Ogawa, J.; Kiwata, T.; Komatsu, N.; Nakamura, K.
    In order to investigate turbulent diffusion in a deciduous forest canopy, wind velocity measurements were conducted from late autumn of 2009 to early spring of 2010, using an observation tower 20 m in height located in the campus of Kanazawa University. Four sonic anemometers mounted on the tower recorded the average wind velocities and temperatures, as well as their fluctuations, at four different heights simultaneously. Two different types of data sets were selected, in which the wind velocities, wind bearings and atmospheric stabilities were all similar, but the Leaf Area Indexes (LAI's) were different. Vertical profiles of average wind velocities were found to have an approximately exponential profile in each case. The characteristic length scales of turbulence were evaluated by both von Karman's method and the integral time scale deduced from the autocorrelation from time-series analyses. Both methods produced comparable values of eddy diffusivity for the cases with some foliage during late autumn, but some discrepancy in the upper canopy layer was observed when the trees did not have their leaves in early spring. It was also found that the eddy diffusivities generally take greater values at higher positions, where the wind speeds are large. Anisotropy of eddy diffusivities between the vertical and horizontal components was also observed, particularly in the cases when the canopy does not have leaves, when the horizontal eddy diffusivities are generally larger than the vertical ones. On the other hand, the anisotropy is less visible when the trees have some foliage during autumn. The effects of topography on the turbulent diffusion were also investigated, including evaluation of the non-zero time-averaged vertical wind velocities. The results show that the effects are marginal for both cases, and can be neglected as far as diffusion in the canopy is concerned.
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    A reconfigurable hybrid intelligent system for robot navigation
    (Massey University, 2011) Reyes, N.H.; Barczak, A.L.C.; Fatahillah; Susnjak, T.
    Soft computing has come of age to o er us a wide array of powerful and e cient algorithms that independently matured and in uenced our approach to solving problems in robotics, search and optimisation. The steady progress of technology, however, induced a ux of new real-world applications that demand for more robust and adaptive computational paradigms, tailored speci cally for the problem domain. This gave rise to hybrid intelligent systems, and to name a few of the successful ones, we have the integration of fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and neural networks. As noted in the literature, they are signi cantly more powerful than individual algorithms, and therefore have been the subject of research activities in the past decades. There are problems, however, that have not succumbed to traditional hybridisation approaches, pushing the limits of current intelligent systems design, questioning their solutions of a guarantee of optimality, real-time execution and self-calibration. This work presents an improved hybrid solution to the problem of integrated dynamic target pursuit and obstacle avoidance, comprising of a cascade of fuzzy logic systems, genetic algorithm, the A* search algorithm and the Voronoi diagram generation algorithm.
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    A new 2D static hand gesture colour image dataset for ASL gestures
    (Massey University, 2011) Barczak, A.L.C.; Reyes, N.H.; Abastillas, M.; Piccio, A.; Susnjak, T.
    It usually takes a fusion of image processing and machine learning algorithms in order to build a fully-functioning computer vision system for hand gesture recognition. Fortunately, the complexity of developing such a system could be alleviated by treating the system as a collection of multiple sub-systems working together, in such a way that they can be dealt with in isolation. Machine learning need to feed on thousands of exemplars (e.g. images, features) to automatically establish some recognisable patterns for all possible classes (e.g. hand gestures) that applies to the problem domain. A good number of exemplars helps, but it is also important to note that the efficacy of these exemplars depends on the variability of illumination conditions, hand postures, angles of rotation, scaling and on the number of volunteers from whom the hand gesture images were taken. These exemplars are usually subjected to image processing first, to reduce the presence of noise and extract the important features from the images. These features serve as inputs to the machine learning system. Different sub-systems are integrated together to form a complete computer vision system for gesture recognition. The main contribution of this work is on the production of the exemplars. We discuss how a dataset of standard American Sign Language (ASL) hand gestures containing 2425 images from 5 individuals, with variations in lighting conditions and hand postures is generated with the aid of image processing techniques. A minor contribution is given in the form of a specific feature extraction method called moment invariants, for which the computation method and the values are furnished with the dataset.
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    An ontology of agile aspect oriented software development
    (Massey University, 2011) Parsons, David
    Both agile methods and aspect oriented programming (AOP) have emerged in recent years as new paradigms in software development. Both promise to free the process of building software systems from some of the constraints of more traditional approaches. As a software engineering approach on the one hand, and a software development tool on the other, there is the potential for them to be used in conjunction. However, thus far, there has been little interplay between the two. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that there may be untapped synergies that may be exploited, if the appropriate approach is taken to integrating AOP with agile methods. This paper takes an ontological approach to supporting this integration, proposing ontology enabled development based on an analysis of existing ontologies of aspect oriented programming, a proposed ontology of agile methods, and a derived ontology of agile aspect oriented development.
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    Geodesics on Lie groups: Euler equations and totally geodesic subgroup
    (Massey University, 2010) Modin, K.; Perlmutter, M.; Marsland, S.; McLachlan, R.
    The geodesic motion on a Lie group equipped with a left or right invariant Riemannian metric is governed by the Euler-Arnold equation. This paper investigates conditions on the metric in order for a given subgroup to be totally geodesic. Results on the construction and characterisation of such metrics are given. The setting works both in the classical nite dimensional case, and in the category of in nite dimensional Fr echet Lie groups, in which di eomorphism groups are included. Using the framework we give new examples of both nite and in nite dimensional totally geodesic subgroups. In particular, based on the cross helicity, we construct right invariant metrics such that a given subgroup of exact volume preserving di eomorphisms is totally geodesic. The paper also gives a general framework for the representation of Euler-Arnold equations in arbitrary choice of dual pairing.
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    Mixing multi-core CPUs and GPUs for scientific simulation software
    (Massey University, 2010) Hawick, K.A.; Leist, A.; Playne, D.P.
    Recent technological and economic developments have led to widespread availability of multi-core CPUs and specialist accelerator processors such as graphical processing units (GPUs). The accelerated computational performance possible from these devices can be very high for some applications paradigms. Software languages and systems such as NVIDIA's CUDA and Khronos consortium's open compute language (OpenCL) support a number of individual parallel application programming paradigms. To scale up the performance of some complex systems simulations, a hybrid of multi-core CPUs for coarse-grained parallelism and very many core GPUs for data parallelism is necessary. We describe our use of hybrid applica- tions using threading approaches and multi-core CPUs to control independent GPU devices. We present speed-up data and discuss multi-threading software issues for the applications level programmer and o er some suggested areas for language development and integration between coarse-grained and ne-grained multi-thread systems. We discuss results from three common simulation algorithmic areas including: partial di erential equations; graph cluster metric calculations and random number generation. We report on programming experiences and selected performance for these algorithms on: single and multiple GPUs; multi-core CPUs; a CellBE; and using OpenCL. We discuss programmer usability issues and the outlook and trends in multi-core programming for scienti c applications developers.
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    A novel bootstrapping method for positive datasets in cascades of boosted ensembles
    (Massey University, 2010) Susnjak, T.; Barczak, A.L.C.; Hawick, K.A.
    We present a novel method for efficiently training a face detector using large positive datasets in a cascade of boosted ensembles. We extend the successful Viola-Jones [1] framework which achieved low false acceptance rates through bootstrapping negative samples with the capability to also bootstrap large positive datasets thereby capturing more in-class variation of the target object. We achieve this form of bootstrapping by way of an additional embedded cascade within each layer and term the new structure as the Bootstrapped Dual-Cascaded (BDC) framework. We demonstrate its ability to easily and efficiently train a classifier on large and complex face datasets which exhibit acute in-class variation.
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    Small-world networks, distributed hash tables and the e-resource discovery problem
    (Massey University, 2010) Leist, A.; Hawick, K.A.
    Resource discovery is one of the most important underpinning problems behind producing a scalable, robust and efficient global infrastructure for e-Science. A number of approaches to the resource discovery and management problem have been made in various computational grid environments and prototypes over the last decade. Computational resources and services in modern grid and cloud environments can be modelled as an overlay network superposed on the physical network structure of the Internet and World Wide Web. We discuss some of the main approaches to resource discovery in the context of the general properties of such an overlay network. We present some performance data and predicted properties based on algorithmic approaches such as distributed hash table resource discovery and management. We describe a prototype system and use its model to explore some of the known key graph aspects of the global resource overlay network - including small-world and scale-free properties.
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    A review of traffic simulation software
    (Massey University, 2009) Kotusevski, G.; Hawick, K.A.
    Computer simulation of tra c is a widely used method in research of tra c modelling, planning and development of tra c networks and systems. Vehicular tra c systems are of growing concern and interest globally and modelling arbitrarily complex tra c systems is a hard problem. In this article we review some of the tra c simulation software applications, their features and characteristics as well as the issues these applications face. Additionally, we introduce some algorithmic ideas, underpinning data structural approaches and quanti able metrics that can be applied to simulated model systems.
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    Face tracking using a hyperbolic catadioptric omnidirectional system
    (Massey University, 2009) Barczak, A.L.C.; Okamoto Jr, J.; Grassi Jr, V.
    In the first part of this paper, we present a brief review on catadioptric omnidirectional systems. The special case of the hyperbolic omnidirectional system is analysed in depth. The literature shows that a hyperboloidal mirror has two clear advantages over alternative geometries. Firstly, a hyperboloidal mirror has a single projection centre [1]. Secondly, the image resolution is uniformly distributed along the mirror’s radius [2]. In the second part of this paper we show empirical results for the detection and tracking of faces from the omnidirectional images using Viola-Jones method. Both panoramic and perspective projections, extracted from the omnidirectional image, were used for that purpose. The omnidirectional image size was 480x480 pixels, in greyscale. The tracking method used regions of interest (ROIs) set as the result of the detections of faces from a panoramic projection of the image. In order to avoid losing or duplicating detections, the panoramic projection was extended horizontally. Duplications were eliminated based on the ROIs established by previous detections. After a confirmed detection, faces were tracked from perspective projections (which are called virtual cameras), each one associated with a particular face. The zoom, pan and tilt of each virtual camera was determined by the ROIs previously computed on the panoramic image. The results show that, when using a careful combination of the two projections, good frame rates can be achieved in the task of tracking faces reliably.