Novel digital VLSI implementation of data encryption algorithm using nano-metric CMOS technology : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

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Massey University
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Implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) have rapidly grown in various applications including telecommunications, finance and networks that require a low power consumption and low cost design. Presented in this thesis is a new 8-bit stream cipher architecture core for an application specific integrated circuit AES crypto-processor. The chip area and power are optimised along with high throughput by employing circuit-level techniques, resource sharing and low supply voltage. The proposed design includes a novel S-box/ InvS-box, MixColumn/ InvMixColumn and ShiftRow/ InvShiftRow with a novel low power Exclusive OR (XOR) gate applied to all sub systems to minimise the power consumption. It is implemented in a 130nm CMOS process and supports both encryption and decryption in Electronic Codebook Mode (EBC) using 128-bit keys with a throughput of 0.05Gbit/s (at 100MHz clock). This design utilises 3152 gate equivalents, including an on-the-fly key scheduling unit along with 4.23μW/MHz power consumption. The area of the chip is 640μm×325μm (0.208 square mm), excluding the bonding pads. Compared to other 8-bit implementations, the proposed design achieves a smaller chip size along with higher throughput and lower power dissipation. This thesis also describes a new fault detection scheme for S-box/ InvS-box that is parity prediction based to protect the key from fault attacks.
The following articles were removed due to copyright restrictions: Ahmad, N., Hasan, R. (2013) "A 0.8 V 0.23 nW 1.5 ns full-swing pass-transistor XOR gate in 130 nm CMOS", Active and passive electronic components, 1-6; Ahmad, N., Rezaul Hasan, S.M., (2012) "Efficient integrated AES crypto-processor architecture for 8-bit stream cipher", Electronic Letters, IET, 48:23, 1456-1457; Ahmad, N., Rezaul Hasan, S.M. (2013) "Low-power compact composite field AES S-Box/Inv S-Box design in 65nm CMOS using Novel XOR Gate", Integration, the VLSI Journal, 46:4, 333-345; Ahmad, N., Hasan, R. (2012) "Topology of 2 input subnanowatt XOR gate in 65nm CMOS technology," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics 2012 (ICSE2012), Sept. 19-21, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 597-599; Ahmad, N., Rezaul Hasan, S.M. (2011) "Decomposition method for AES Mix Column and Inv Mix Column VLSI architecture optimization", Proceedings 18th Electronics New Zealand Conference, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 91-94; Ahmad, N., Hasan, R. (2011) "A new design of XOR-XNOR gates for low power application", Proceedings 2011 IEEE International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications (ICEDSA), 25-27 Apr, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 45-49.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Data encryption, Integrated circuits, Very large scale integration (VLSI), CMOS, Crypto-processor, Power consumption (Computing), Computer algorithms