Feature-based rapid object detection : from feature extraction to parallelisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Sciences at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
This thesis studies rapid object detection, focusing on feature-based methods. Firstly,
modifications of training and detection of the Viola-Jones method are made to improve
performance and overcome some of the current limitations such as rotation, occlusion and
articulation. New classifiers produced by training and by converting existing classifiers
are tested in face detection and hand detection.
Secondly, the nature of invariant features in terms of the computational complexity,
discrimination power and invariance to rotation and scaling are discussed. A new feature
extraction method called Concentric Discs Moment Invariants (CDMI) is developed
based on moment invariants and summed-area tables. The dimensionality of this set of
features can be increased by using additional concentric discs, rather than using higher
order moments. The CDMI set has useful properties, such as speed, rotation invariance,
scaling invariance, and rapid contrast stretching can be easily implemented. The results of
experiments with face detection shows a clear improvement in accuracy and performance
of the CDMI method compared to the standard moment invariants method. Both the
CDMI and its variant, using central moments from concentric squares, are used to assess
the strength of the method applied to hand-written digits recognition.
Finally, the parallelisation of the detection algorithm is discussed. A new model for
the specific case of the Viola-Jones method is proposed and tested experimentally. This
model takes advantage of the structure of classifiers and of the multi-resolution approach
associated with the detection method. The model shows that high speedups can be
achieved by broadcasting frames and carrying out the computation of one or more cascades
in each node.